As I explained in part one of this series, more than just a great business idea makes a business successful. More than simply wanting to strike out on your own, make money as your own boss and create a reality out of a vision, a business, now matter how big or small must have an exit strategy for its creator. It might be a legacy, a business that you would like to see passed on to your heirs. It might be a stepping stone to bigger and better opportunities down the road. But what it should be, all things dreams of success aside, is a bridge to the day when you are no longer working.
To consider retirement at the onset of your company's creation is paramount to that goal. We may say we are working for the glory and the independence, the profits and the satisfaction but in truth, we are working for the payoff.
While the solo 401(k) is designed for the business of one, often times that business will grow to include other people. Product lines expand as your success grows. Contracting out work can be a temporary stopgap yet if you would like to see your business grow to entice more customers and control the quality of your projects, you may need to hire people to work with you in those goals, folks who share your ideals and passions, the same people who, because of their dedication will also be deserving of a piece of the profits generated.
A SEP-IRA can fill those needs nicely. But like all taxable events, the rules need to be followed. SEP-IRA or self-employed pension individual retirement account allows you, the employer of one or more, to share in the profits of your business by making contributions to this type of plan.
It acts just like a traditional IRA would with added feature of shifting contributions. In good years, the plan can allow contributions of up to $49,000 per employee. This contribution is tax deductible for the business and the growth of those funds is tax deferred. In years when the business profits falter or are simply subject to cyclical changes, the contribution can be lowered or eliminated completely.
SEP IRA is a retirement plan designed to benefit self employed individuals and small business owners. Sole proprietorships, S and C corporations, partnerships and LLCs qualify. In those circumstances, the company pays the business owner (you) a W-2 salary. In this situation, the annual SEP IRA contribution can be between 0% to 25% of the owner's W-2 salary up to the SEP IRA contribution limit. The caveat: you must also contribute to your employees the same percentage as was contributed to yours.
The contribution limits are slightly lower for an unincorporated business such as a sole proprietorship, unincorporated partnership or a LLC electing to be taxed as a sole proprietorship. In this instance, annual contributions are made into your SEP IRA account between 0 to 20% of your net adjusted self employment income. Either way, these are hefty savings allowances compared to the limits placed on other types of retirement plans.
One important thing to consider though: having a solo 401(k) as well. because a SEP-IRA is dependent on profits and if you have employees, sharing those profits with them, a solo 401(k), allowable as well alongside the SEP-IRA, gives you another opportunity to put away money for retirement from your income, which may not be reliant on the profits of the business.
Eligible employees must be at least 21 years of age and have worked for you for at least three years of the last five years. SEP-IRAs are easy to set up and cost effective, may have little or no paperwork to file with government and could net you a tax deduction of up to $500 for the first three years of the plan. Plans are administered by the employer through a mutual fund company. generally offering a simple basket of funds from which to choose.
While plan participants cannot borrow against their SEP-IRAs, they may roll them over to another qualified plan. And like all IRAs, are subject to the same withdrawal penalties and restrictions on age.
Next up: The simple IRA and the solo defined benefit plan.